A fixed asset is the property of the organization, which serves as a means for making a profit, and also has a useful life of more than a year. The organization can acquire these assets in various ways: under a sale and purchase agreement, free of charge, in the form of a contribution to the authorized capital, as well as under an exchange agreement. The accountant must charge property tax on a monthly basis, as well as submit reports to the Federal Tax Service on a quarterly basis, but for this it is necessary to take fixed assets on the balance sheet.
First of all, determine which group of fixed assets the received property belongs to. There are several main categories: buildings, structures, machinery, equipment, transport, tools and others. Depending on the category you have chosen, sub-accounts are opened for account 01.
Then capitalize the asset receipt. Depending on the method of receipt, correspondence of accounts is drawn up, but, one way or another, the property is initially credited to account 08 "Investments in non-current assets", to which the required subaccount is opened, for example, if this is a receipt, then select the subaccount "Acquisition of Fixed Assets".
To define a credit account, define a source of receipt. If the property was received through a contribution to the authorized capital, make an entry:
D08 "Investments in non-current assets" K75 "Settlements with founders" subaccount "Settlements on contributions to the authorized (pooled) capital".
In the event that the fixed assets were received under an exchange agreement, reflect this in this way:
D62 "Settlements with buyers and customers" К91 "Other income and expenses" - property received under an exchange agreement;
D08 "Investments in non-current assets" К60 "Settlements with suppliers and contractors" - the receipt of property under an exchange agreement was capitalized.
In the event that the property was received free of charge, make a note:
D01 "Fixed assets" K91 "Other income and expenses" or 98 "Deferred income" - property is taken into account.
When a fixed asset comes from a supplier, you need to reflect it this way:
D08 "Investments in non-current assets" К60 "Settlements with suppliers and contractors" - accrued to the supplier;
D01 "Fixed asset" K08 "Investments in non-current assets" - the fixed asset was put into operation.
After that, put the property into operation. To do this, issue an order and an act of acceptance and transfer of the object of fixed assets (form No. OS-1). Also assign an inventory number to the object. But keep in mind that if a fixed asset consists of several parts, which at the same time have different useful lives, then the numbers will be different. Be sure to write down the procedure for determining this number in the accounting policy. The code serves to mechanize the accounting of fixed assets.