According to the new FSES, the teacher must have the ability not only to create a lesson outline, but also to design it in the form of a technological map. This concept is borrowed from the field of industrial technology, and its application in modern methodology allows you to modernize the learning process and reduce the teacher's preparation time for the lesson.
The technological map allows you to design the educational process. The task of the teacher when creating it is to show the so-called activity approach in the learning process. Describing each stage of the lesson in the flowchart, the teacher designs his own activities and the intended actions of students. Below are the requirements for the technological map of the lesson in the primary grades and a description of its structure is given.
Modern lesson ideas (i.e. lesson requirements):
- the purpose and objectives of the lesson are set out clearly and specifically;
- the main goal is to achieve specific results (universal educational actions);
- students are motivated to take part in the lesson;
- the content of the lesson is related to the personal experience of the students;
- a problematic situation has been created in the lesson;
- the content of the lesson corresponds to the goals and objectives: the potential of the teaching materials is used, if necessary - additional material;
- traces the relationship between the activities of students in the lesson with the goal (achievement of planned results);
- conditions have been created for students to work independently;
- the requirements of SanPin are taken into account;
- in the classroom, the teacher creates conditions for the formation of students' evaluative activity and reflection.
1. The goal that the teacher wants to achieve in the lesson (only one goal is indicated, it should not be confused with the concept of "lesson objectives"). If possible, the problem (i.e. the idea) of the lesson, the objectives of the lesson (ways of achieving the goal) are stated. Planned lesson results (formed in the UUD lesson) - verbs in an indefinite form are used (see FSES). Educational technologies and methods used (including health-preserving technologies are listed). Learning tools used (electronic and printed resources, textbook, study guides, visual aids, equipment).
2. The course of the lesson. A two-column table is created. The first column is called "Teacher's activities" (during each stage of the lesson, you need to briefly describe the teacher's actions using words such as: "organizes, creates, reads, contributes, helps", etc.). The second column is "Student activity" (it can be described using the words: "read, analyze, make assumptions, generalize, agree", etc.). At the end of each stage of the lesson, the teacher necessarily organizes the control and assessment activities of the students, and the students conduct a self-assessment of educational actions and results.
The course of the lesson consists of 4 main stages that must be reflected in the map. The teacher can break each stage into smaller ones, depending on his own idea. It is necessary to describe the actions, not the intended responses of the students. Direct speech should be used as little as possible, only if it is impossible to replace it with a descriptive turn.
Stage 1. Statement of the educational problem. The teacher creates a problem situation and organizes the actions of the students so that they themselves (if possible) formulate the problem. Together with the teacher, the children determine the topic of the lesson. The current knowledge and skills of children are being revised, which will be necessary to solve the formulated problem.
Stage 2. Organization of cognitive activities. The teacher and students are planning work for the lesson. In the course of performing special tasks, new knowledge is discovered, UUD is formed, the problem formulated earlier is solved, etc.
Stage 3. Consolidation and inclusion in the knowledge system.The teacher organizes independent activities of students aimed at consolidating, generalizing, accepting, including new knowledge or skills in the system of existing knowledge, self-control and self-esteem, etc.
Stage 4. Reflection of educational activities in the lesson. Correlation of the goal set at the beginning of the lesson with the planned results. Diagnostics of the achievement of planned results. Self-assessment of the activities of students (and teachers) in the classroom. The final results of solving the problem (or learning problem) formulated at the beginning of the lesson. Practical application of new knowledge and skills.