All courts in Russia are united in the judicial system, which differentiates them by type and type, and the cases they consider - by jurisdiction. Today there are 4 types of ships.
All courts are divided into four types:
- constitutional courts, - arbitration courts, - military courts, - courts of general jurisdiction.
Courts of general jurisdiction
The most common courts are the courts of general jurisdiction, which administer justice for civil, criminal and administrative offenses. Today, in every district of the city, as well as in every rural territorial entity, there is a magistrate and a federal district, district or regional court. Justices of the peace consider "simple" cases, the term of punishment for which does not exceed three years in prison, all administrative disputes, as well as some of the criminal offenses. The jurisdiction of justices of the peace also includes property, inheritance disputes, claims for divorce and determination of amounts for the maintenance of children and / or disabled people, the elderly, etc.
The next "in seniority" after the justices of the peace is the federal court of general jurisdiction. These courts hear all claims and cases, including grave and especially grave cases. This judicial body is very voluminous, has an apparatus and an executive part, an internal hierarchy. Thus, district courts are subordinate to city courts, city courts to district courts, district courts to regional courts, and regional courts to republican ones. The highest body is the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation, which hears cases by way of appeal and cassation.
An appeal is a verification by a higher court of the legality of a decision that has already entered into legal force on the documents available in the case.
Military courts also belong to the category of courts of general jurisdiction, but they stand apart due to the peculiarities of the situation of the persons participating in the process (and the court hears cases against military personnel) and the issues associated with them. Sessions of such courts are almost never open, and by a decision the guilty person can be brought before a tribunal.
The first link of the military court is the courts of garrisons and flotillas, they are subordinate to the courts of formations, then - armies, groups of forces (this is the second link where cases can be reviewed in the order of cassation and appeal, as well as on newly discovered circumstances). The highest judicial body is the military collegium of the Supreme Court of Russia.
Cassation - verification by a higher court of the legality of a decision of a lower court that has not yet entered into force. Allows submission of new evidence.
Economic disputes between legal entities are called upon to be considered by the Arbitration Court. It also has a ramified structure that is subject to the principle of territoriality. Such courts are circuit, appellate. The highest judicial body - the Supreme Arbitration Court of the Russian Federation - stands apart.
The Constitutional Court in Russia is one and the same, it consists of 13 judges, elected in a special order. The Constitutional Court does not hear private disputes. It is the body of constitutional control, it is in charge of only matters of a legislative nature, and therefore the decisions of this court are executed along with the normative legal acts of the Russian Federation. Only by a decision of the Constitutional Court can the adopted normative act be challenged, canceled or revised.