Filing a statement of claim with a court, most often a civil one, is usually accompanied by a host of mandatory formalities, including strict adherence to the so-called statute of limitations. Violation of the latter is almost always a guarantee of defeat in the process.
When does the statute of limitations appear?
It is understood as the time given to the plaintiff to try to protect the violated rights by someone. The introduction of this concept was caused by the desire of the state to speed up the process of considering claims. And at the same time, to unload the courts, littered with similar statements-red tape.
How many terms?
It is not the judge who declares the expiration of the term, it is the duty of one of the procedural opponents. Most often, such statements are made by those for whom they are more beneficial - the defendants. Upon learning of the expiration, the court usually denies the plaintiff's defense.
There are only two of them: general and special. The first is used, for example, in a dispute over a loan and is equal to three years. The second depends more on the essence of the matter. So, exactly one month is given to challenge the legality of the dismissal. If the seller violates the rules of the so-called preemptive purchase, then the period is three months. Claims against those who owe the drawer are valid for no more than six months. In case of a claim to compensate for damage received during the carriage of goods by a third-party organization, the period will be equal to one year The duration of property insurance cases is estimated as early as two calendar years. And the division of chairs and dishes by ex-spouses can last up to three years.
The maximum periods, respectively, of five, six and ten years, are set for legal claims against construction contractors, for compensation for damage caused by oil pollution by tankers and other ships of the seas and coastal zones, in case of poor performance of the consumer contract.
The countdown of the term starts from the day when the plaintiff first learned about the violation of rights. The second option was to find out and react as quickly as possible.
The limitation of actions can be suspended only as an exception. There are only five exceptions. Moreover, they should arise in the last six months before filing a claim. The first such exclusion is called force majeure. It is considered a tsunami, earthquake, or other disaster like a revolution or a strike. The second such case is the plaintiff's military service in a war or under a declared martial law. Exception number three is the adjournment granted by the judge for the defendant. The fourth situation arises when the necessary rule of law suddenly ceased to work. Finally, the limitation period is “frozen” if the parties decide to come to an agreement with the participation of a mediator.
Forget about time
Such fair claims of the plaintiff as compensation for harm caused to health or life have no statute of limitations; the depositor's desire to return the money that was honestly earned, but blocked by the bank; protection of moral rights. There is no time limit for the deprivation of the owner or the owner of his property by illegal means.
In some cases, which can also be called exceptional, the court enters the sad situation of the plaintiff and restores the term. Good and necessarily personal reasons include, for example, serious illness, illiteracy and helplessness of the plaintiff.